Ritiek Malhotra Pieces on technology and personal thoughts!

GSoC with MetaBrainz (in Rust!)

So, my GSoC project proposal got selected this year! I’ve been working with the MetaBrainz Foundation on extending the Rust wrapper around the MusicBrainz Web-API, named musicbrainz_rs.

For all the folks who have no idea what MusicBrainz is - MusicBrainz is an openly accessible database maintained by the community, which contains records on music metadata. If you’ve ever worked with the Spotify Web-API, you’ll know you can make API calls to access information on some of the metadata on artists, albums and songs that Spotify exposes. MusicBrainz has been built on the same idea with a laser focus only on music metadata (unlike Spotify, where you can also control music playback through their API) and offers a lot more detail on this metadata compared to other services like Spotify.

Accessing the metadata

You can go right now and explore this metadata through their web search! For the context, let’s say we look up on the music artist Green Day, we’ll get to the artist’s page, neatly showcasing the albums that the artist has released. If you look at this page’s URL, you’ll notice this long alphanumeric string - 084308bd-1654-436f-ba03-df6697104e19. This is the artist’s MBID (short for MusicBrainz ID). MusicBrainz supports many entities and every entity is associated with a unique MBID. So, every artist, track, or any other entity in MusicBrainz is associated with a unique MBID.

You can even download the complete database onto your local disk from here, anytime!

The Web-API

MusicBrainz also offers a Web-API to programatically access this metadata. Let’s say to access metadata for the artist Green Day through the API, you’ll need to know the artist’s MBID (which we already have from the last section) and then make a GET request to the endpoint:
https://musicbrainz.org/ws/2/artist/084308bd-1654-436f-ba03-df6697104e19

You’ll notice that we’re missing a lot of information here compared to what we saw in the web interface in the last section. This is because the API returns minimal information by default. You need to pass additional parameters to access any further information.

Let’s say to also access the artist’s albums (which is termed as release-groups in MusicBrainz) - we pass ?inc=release-groups when making the request:
https://musicbrainz.org/ws/2/artist/084308bd-1654-436f-ba03-df6697104e19?inc=release-groups

See Subqueries for the complete list of supported parameters. There are many more things that you can do through the Web-API (see the API documentation). I won’t be covering them here.

Language libraries

People have created library wrappers around the Web-API for many programming languages. The list of recognized of libraries can be found here, and this is where I come in. This summer, I’ve been working on one such library for the Rust programming language, named musicbrainz_rs.

For example, you can make queries using musicbrainz_rs this way:

extern crate musicbrainz_rs;

use musicbrainz_rs::entity::artist::Artist;
use musicbrainz_rs::prelude::*;

fn main() {
    let green_day = Artist::fetch()
        .id("084308bd-1654-436f-ba03-df6697104e19")
        .with_release_groups()
        .execute()
        .unwrap();

    let release_groups = green_day.release_groups.unwrap();

    assert!(release_groups
        .iter()
        .any(|release_group| release_group.title == "Dookie"));
}

musicbrainz_rs isn’t listed as a recognized library by MusicBrainz, since the library does not completely wrap around the Web-API at the moment. Off the top of my head, we’re mainly missing on Non-MBID Lookups, Search and Submitting Data. There are also parts of the library that need to be addressed before it being suitable for use in production. Anyway, I’ve been working with Paul (creator of musicbrainz_rs) to build new features in the library. We’ve had some cool things going on since the last month, which I’ll talk about in the next sections!

Coverart

  • The library can now fetch for coverart for the release and release-group entities. An example covering all of these methods can be found in - fetch_release_coverart.rs.

Auto-retries

  • The library will now auto-retry on queries failed due to rate-limiting by the MusicBrainz servers. In case of a failed query due to rate-limiting, we’re returned with the time duration in the response header until the next query would be accepted the MusicBrainz servers. The library now automatically sleeps the current thread for this received duration and retries the query by default. The default is set to 2 retries per failed query and this can be changed with:
    musicbrainz_rs::config::set_default_retries(3);
    
  • We’ve also previously had trouble running our test-suite due to this. Our test-suite is constantly making queries to MusicBrainz servers and the queries would start to fail after a while. So we had ugly hacks in-place to get our test-suite to pass. We had introduced a one second sleep in our test-suite after every call to the MusicBrainz servers to not trigger their rate-limitations, and this had been greatly increasing our test-suite run times. I’m glad this is no longer the case after introducing auto-retries!

Relationship Includes

  • I mentioned earlier about how we can request for additional information when making queries by passing the ?inc= subquery parameter. Relationship includes can be considered as one such category of parameters that can be passed to ?inc=.

  • I’ve been involved with refactoring the already implemented subquery include parameters and further implemented the relationship include parameters. This involved some manual work on my part to figure out what include parameters are accepted by what entities (since this doesn’t seem to have been documented in the docs and I couldn’t find it anywhere else either). Anyway, requests to relationship includes can now be made simliar to how subquery includes are requested for:

  • (This hasn’t been merged into the main codebase yet, we’ll get there soon!) We’re there now!

      let ninja_tune = Label::fetch()
          .id("dc940013-b8a8-4362-a465-291026c04b42")
          .with_recording_relations()
          .execute()
          .unwrap();
    
      let relations = ninja_tune.relations.unwrap();
    
      assert!(relations
          .iter()
          .any(|rel| rel.relation_type == "phonographic copyright"));
    

This is fun!

I’ve been enjoying so far. This GSoC has given me a chance to extend the reaches of MusicBrainz to Rust and also get better at writing Rust code, something that I’ve always been excited about ever since I first tried it out. :P

I’m happy I got this opportunity. Thank you, Paul, and the MetaBrainz Foundation!